Five Leaf Remedies

Polls & Research

Why was Medical Marijuana approved in Pennsylvania?

Studies have shown that medical marijuana can assist patients suffering from certain serious medical conditions by alleviating pain and improving their quality of life.


Public Support at Highest-Ever Levels

87% of Pennsylvania voters favored the legalization of medical marijuana.

Support for the legalization of both medical and recreational types of marijuana have increased in the past decade.

Franklin & Marshall College Poll, June 18, 2015. The poll reflects interviews with 556 Pennsylvania registered voters conducted June 8-14. The sample error is plus or minus 4.1%.

A Quinnipiac University poll found 88% of Pennsylvania voters support medical marijuana while just 10% opposed the idea. 

Numbers were high across the spectrum, with 78% of Republicans, 94% of Democrats, and 91% of Independents in favor. 

Quinnipiac University Poll, April 7, 2015. The poll was conducted from March 17 to March 28. 1,036 Pennsylvania registered voters were interviewed live through land lines and cell phones. The margin of error is plus or minus 3%.

Nationwide, 89% of voters said they’re in favor of medical cannabis, with just 9 percent opposed. 

Quinnipiac University conducted the poll via landlines and cellphones from May 24-30, 2016, surveying 1,561 registered voters with a margin of error of plus or minus 2.5 percentage points. 


Peer- Reviewed Research Studies

Fewer opioid overdose deaths

States where medical cannabis is legal had a 24.8% lower mean annual opioid overdose mortality rate compared with states without legal medical cannabis. The longer a law was in place, the more the opioid overdose mortality rate decreased. For example, the mortality rate decreased by 33% in states where marijuana had been legalized for five years.(1)


Study found that delta-9-THC (a purified cannabinoid) reduces early autism symptoms in infants.(4)

Calming the epileptic brain

Cannabis extracts “exerted significant anticonvulsant effects in three models of seizure” in mice and rats, findings that “strongly support the further clinical development of cannabis derivatives in the treatment of epilepsy.”(7)


Inhaled cannabis provided short-term relief from chronic neuropathic pain for 1 in 5 to 6 patients treated.(13)

Numerous randomized clinical trials have demonstrated safety and efficacy for Sativex (a cannabis-derived nasal spray) in neuropathic pain, rheumatoid arthritis and cancer pain.(16)


Cannabinoids stimulate the removal of the plaque characteristic to onset while blocking the inflammatory response that causes nerve-cell death.(2) 


Treatment with CBD (cannabis-derived oil) inhibits human breast cancer cell proliferation and invasion.(5)

Glaucoma and cannabis

Cannabinoids have antioxidant properties that can prevent nerve-cell death. The vasorelaxant properties of cannabis might be able to increase ocular blood flow.(8)

Improving mobility in multiple sclerosis patients

A systematic review found that five of six randomized controlled trials reported a reduction in spasticity and an improvement in mobility.(11)

Parkinson’s disease

After consumption of cannabis, analysis of specific motor symptoms revealed significant improvement in tremor, rigidity, and slow movement. There was also significant improvement of sleep and pain scores without significant adverse side effects.(14)

Sickle Cell Anemia

Sickle Cell Anemia study shows cannabinoids reduce pain in mice with sickle characteristics.(17)

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

Patients find cannabis stimulates appetite, aids sleep, relieves depression and anxiety, and provides muscle relaxation.(3)

Crohn’s disease

Eight weeks of cannabis with high THC resulted in steroid-free, clinical benefits in 10 out of 11 patients with Crohn’s disease without any side effects. Subjects who received cannabis reported improved sleep and increased appetite. Also 45% of the subjects receiving cannabis achieved complete remission in that time as opposed to just 10% in the non-cannabis placebo group.(6)


When administered marijuana, HIV-positive individuals experienced substantial increases in food intake, helping appease side effects of both the virus and pharmaceutical remedies.(9)    

Huntington’s disease

Cannabinoid therapy reduced Huntington’s-like symptoms; cannabinoid receptors may play a significant role in the development of Huntington’s disease.(12)

Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

Using data from 80 psychiatric evaluations over two years in New Mexico, data showed greater than 75% reduction in symptom scores when patients were using cannabis compared to when they were not. (15)


  1. Bachhuber MA, Saloner B, Cunningham CO, Barry CL. Medical Cannabis Laws and Opioid Analgesic Overdose Mortality in the United States, 1999-2010. JAMA Intern Med. 2014;174(10):1668-1673. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2014.4005
  2. Currais, A., Quehenberger, O., Armando, A. M., Daugherty, D., Maher, P., & Schubert, D. (2016, June 23). Amyloid proteotoxicity initiates an inflammatory response blocked by cannabinoids. Npj Aging and Mechanisms of Disease, 2, 16012. doi:10.1038/npjamd.2016.12
  3. Kaufman, J. et al. (2014, April 29). Medical Marijuana Utilization and Perceived Therapeutic Value in Patients with ALS. Neuromuscular and Clinical Neurophysiology, 3.014. Retrieved December 14, 2016.
  4. Kurz, R., & Blaas, K. (2010). Use of dronabinol (delta-9-THC) in autism: a prospective single-case-study with an early infantile autistic child. Cannabinoids, 5(4), 4-6.
  5. Mcallister, S. D., Murase, R., Christian, R. T., Lau, D., Zielinski, A. J., Allison, J., . . . Desprez, P. (2010). Pathways mediating the effects of cannabidiol on the reduction of breast cancer cell proliferation, invasion, and metastasis. Breast Cancer Research and Treatment,129(1), 37-47. doi:10.1007/s10549-010-1177-4.
  6. Naftali, T., Schleider, L. B. L., Dotan, I., Lansky, E. P., Benjaminov, F. S., & Konikoff, F. M. (2013). Cannabis induces a clinical response in patients with Crohn's disease: a prospective placebo-controlled study. Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology, 11(10), 1276-1280.
  7. Hill, T. D., Cascio, M., Romano, B., Duncan, M., Pertwee, R. G., Williams, C. M., . . . Hill, A. J. (2013). Cannabidivarin-rich cannabis extracts are anticonvulsant in mouse and rat via a CB 1 receptor-independent mechanism. British Journal of Pharmacology, 170(3), 679-692. doi:10.1111/bph.12321
  8. Tomida, I. (2004). Cannabinoids and glaucoma. British Journal of Ophthalmology, 88(5), 708-713. doi:10.1136/bjo.2003.032250
  9. Haney, M., Rabkin, J., Gunderson, E., & Foltin, R. W. (2005). Dronabinol and marijuana in HIV marijuana smokers: acute effects on caloric intake and mood. Psychopharmacology, 181(1), 170-178. doi:10.1007/s00213-005-2242-2
  10.  Filippis, D. D., Esposito, G., Cirillo, C., Cipriano, M., Winter, B. Y., Scuderi, C., . . . Iuvone, T. (2011). Cannabidiol Reduces Intestinal Inflammation through the Control of Neuroimmune Axis. PLoS ONE,6(12). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0028159
  11. Lakhan, S. E., & Rowland, M. (2009). Whole plant cannabis extracts in the treatment of spasticity in multiple sclerosis: a systematic review. BMC Neurology, 9(1). doi:10.1186/1471-2377-9-59
  12.  Blazquez, C., Chiarlone, A., Sagredo, O., Aguado, T., Pazos, M. R., Resel, E., . . . Guzman, M. (2010). Loss of striatal type 1 cannabinoid receptors is a key pathogenic factor in Huntington's disease. Brain, 134(1), 119-136. doi:10.1093/brain/awq278
  13.  Andreae, M. H., Carter, G. M., Shaparin, N., Suslov, K., Ellis, R. J., Ware, M. A., . . . Sacks, H. S. (2015). Inhaled Cannabis for Chronic Neuropathic Pain: A Meta-analysis of Individual Patient Data. The Journal of Pain, 16(12), 1221-1232. doi:10.1016/j.jpain.2015.07.009
  14. Lotan, I., Treves, T. A., Roditi, Y., & Djaldetti, R. (2014). Cannabis (Medical Marijuana) Treatment for Motor and Non–Motor Symptoms of Parkinson Disease. Clinical Neuropharmacology, 37(2), 41-44. doi:10.1097/wnf.0000000000000016
  15.  Greer, G. R., Grob, C. S., & Halberstadt, A. L. (2014). PTSD Symptom Reports of Patients Evaluated for the New Mexico Medical Cannabis Program. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 46(1), 73-77. doi:10.1080/02791072.2013.873843
  16. Russo, E. (2008). Cannabinoids in the management of difficult to treat pain. Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management, Volume 4, 245-259. doi:10.2147/tcrm.s1928
  17. Stockman, J. (2012). Pain-related behaviors and neurochemical alterations in mice expressing sickle hemoglobin: modulation by cannabinoids. Yearbook of Pediatrics, 2012, 560-561. doi:10.1016/j.yped.2011.04.007